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posted 3y ago by Mithrandir24601‭  ·  edited 3y ago by Mithrandir24601‭

#3: Post edited by Mithrandir24601‭ · 2020-10-20T18:54:48Z (over 3 years ago)
• First of all, there *is indeed* a pattern.
• To figure out why, there's an easier example than what you've found: $$0.\bar{1} = \frac{1}{9}.$$
• How does that work? $1$ is the only power of $1$: $1^n = 1$.
• Now, how do we *prove* this? if $x = 0.\bar{1}$, then $10x = 1.\bar{1}$ and so, $9x=1$.
• Hidden in that proof lies the answer for the other cases - you have some repeating number and in order to show what fraction that repeating number is equal to, here $1/\left(10n-1\right)$, you multiply it by $10n$ and subtract the number (again, I'll just call it $x$).
• To take your example of $1/19$, we have that the fraction is $x = 0.\overline{052631578947368421}$, so we multiply by $20$ to get $20x = 1.\overline{052631578947368421}$, subtract $x$ and $19x = 1$. Crucially, the number left on the RHS after subtracting is exactly $1$, as everything after the decimal point *cancels*. It must do this, because the fraction is some integer divided by some other integer. That is, if $x=n/m$, then $mx=n$.
• As we're in a decimal system, multiplying by $10$ is shifting one digit to the left. So, in doing this multiplication by $10n$, you're shifting the digit to the left, then multiplying by $n$, which is exactly the procedure outlined in the question.
• Now, each particular digit (after this multiplication procedure) must cancel with the digit to the left so at this point, they must be equal and we have the exact behaviour outlined in your question.
• ---
• To explain this generally and in more detail (taking $x<1$ wlog.) I'll use a fraction $$x = \frac{m}{10n-1}.$$
• When written in decimal format, this is $x = 0.x_1x_2\ldots x_k\ldots$, with $x_{k+r}=x_k$ for some $r$, where each $x_k$ is a single digit (i.e. an integer in the range $0-9$ as we're in a decimal basis).
• Now, we know that $\left(10n-1\right)x = m$, or $10nx - x = m$. However, m is an integer, so all the digits after the decimal point (the 'fractional part', in other words) are $0$.
• This means that the digits in the fractional part of $10nx - x$ *must also* be $0$.
• So, we look at the digits $x_r$ and $x_1\ldots x_{r-1}$.
• The fractional part of $10nx -$ the fractional part of $x$ equals $0$, or the fractional part of $10nx$ equals the fractional part of $x$. For this to be the case, *all the digits must be equal*.
• So, we take the digit $x_r$. To calculate $x_{r-1}$, we use the properties of the fractional parts being equal and multiplication by 10 as shifting the digit to the left to give that the fractional part of $10n\left(0.x_1\ldots x_r\right) - 0.x_1\ldots x_r = 0.0\ldots x_r$ (where the $0$s after the point are repeated $r-1$ times).
• This is *exactly* what's written in the question, just in a different way: $nx_r \mod 10 = x_{r-1}$. Or, the digit to the left of $x_{r-1}$ is $nx_r$, with change. Accounting for this change gives that $x_{r-j} = n^jx_r$, which is where the powers of $n$ come from, the change being what needs to be added to digits further to the left.
• First of all, there *is indeed* a pattern.
• To figure out why, there's an easier example than what you've found: $$0.\bar{1} = \frac{1}{9}.$$
• How does that work? $1$ is the only power of $1$: $1^n = 1$.
• Now, how do we *prove* this? if $x = 0.\bar{1}$, then $10x = 1.\bar{1}$ and so, $9x=1$.
• Hidden in that proof lies the answer for the other cases - you have some repeating number and in order to show what fraction that repeating number is equal to, here $1/\left(10n-1\right)$, you multiply it by $10n$ and subtract the number (again, I'll just call it $x$).
• To take your example of $1/19$, we have that the fraction is $x = 0.\overline{052631578947368421}$, so we multiply by $20$ to get $20x = 1.\overline{052631578947368421}$, subtract $x$ and $19x = 1$. Crucially, the number left on the RHS after subtracting is exactly $1$, as everything after the decimal point *cancels*. It must do this, because the fraction is some integer divided by some other integer. That is, if $x=n/m$, then $mx=n$.
• As we're in a decimal system, multiplying by $10$ is shifting one digit to the left. So, in doing this multiplication by $10n$, you're shifting the digit to the left, then multiplying by $n$, which is exactly the procedure outlined in the question.
• Now, each particular digit (after this multiplication procedure) must cancel with the digit to the left so at this point, they must be equal and we have the exact behaviour outlined in your question.
• ---
• To explain this generally and in more detail (taking $x<1$ wlog.) I'll use a fraction $$x = \frac{m}{10n-1}.$$
• When written in decimal format, this is $x = 0.x_1x_2\ldots x_k\ldots$, with $x_{k+r}=x_k$ for some $r$, where each $x_k$ is a single digit (i.e. an integer in the range $0-9$ as we're in a decimal basis).
• Now, we know that $\left(10n-1\right)x = m$, or $10nx - x = m$. However, m is an integer, so all the digits after the decimal point (the 'fractional part', in other words) are $0$.
• This means that the digits in the fractional part of $10nx - x$ *must also* be $0$.
• So, we look at the digits $x_r$ and $x_1\ldots x_{r-1}$.
• The fractional part of $10nx -$ the fractional part of $x$ equals $0$, or the fractional part of $10nx$ equals the fractional part of $x$. For this to be the case, *all the digits must be equal*.
• So, we take the digit $x_r$. To calculate $x_{r-1}$, we use the properties of the fractional parts being equal and multiplication by 10 as shifting the digit to the left to give that the fractional part of $10n\left(0.x_1\ldots x_r\right) - 0.x_1\ldots x_r = 0.0\ldots x_r$ (where the $0$s after the point are repeated $r-1$ times).
• This is *exactly* what's written in the question, just in a different way: $nx_r \mod 10 = x_{r-1}$. Or, the digit to the left of $x_{r-1}$ is $nx_r$, with change. Accounting for this change gives that $x_{r-j} = n^jx_r$, which is where the powers of $n$ come from, the change being what needs to be added to digits further to the left.
• ---
• To explain what I mean by phrases such as "Accounting for this change", let's take the initial stream of digits again and write them out more explicitly, where the number in brackets to the right of each line represents the number of times the 0 is repeated after the decimal point:
• Now, we apply this procedure of multiplying by $10n$. It is a *requirement* that, because the fractional part of $x$ *must* equal the fractional part of $10nx$, $10nx-m=x$, that is
• \begin{align*}10nx - m &= 0.0\ldots x_k \qquad(k-1)\\\ &+ 0.0\ldots x_{k-1} \qquad(k-2)\\\ &+ 0.0\ldots x_{k-2} \qquad(k-3) + \ldots\end{align*}
• Taking this line by line (where the term in brackets on the LHS has $j-1$ $0$s after the decimal point and the superscripts denote that this series arises from the $j^{th}$ term in the similar expansion of $x$) gives that
• \begin{align*}10n\left(0.0\ldots x_j\right) &= 0.0\ldots x_{k-1}^{(j)} \qquad(k-2)\\\ &+ 0.0\ldots x_{k-2}^{(j)} \qquad(k-3)\\\ &+ 0.0\ldots x_{k-3}^{(j)} \qquad(k-4) + \ldots\end{align*}
• We can add this to the next term in the expansion of $x$ to get that (unfortunately at this point, notation gets very confusing but the first term on the left hand side has $j-1$ $0$s and the second, $j-2$) \begin{align*}10n\left(0.0\ldots x_j + 0.0\ldots x_{j-1}\right) &= 0.0\ldots x_{k-1}^{(j)} \qquad(k-2)\\\ &+ 0.0\ldots x_{k-2}^{(j)} \qquad(k-3)\\\ &+ 0.0\ldots x_{k-2}^{(j-1)} \qquad(k-3)\\\ &+ 0.0\ldots x_{k-3}^{(j)} \qquad(k-4)\\\ &+ 0.0\ldots x_{k-3}^{(j-1)} \qquad(k-4) + \ldots\end{align*}
• Now, having done this, the $k^{th}$ term is exactly $$\sum_{j>k}0.0\ldots x_k^{(j)} \qquad(k-1),$$
• which is the sum over $10n\times$ all the digits to the right of the $k^{th}$ digit, where you're only summing the resulting $k^{th}$ digit.
• However, you can recursively apply this to get that the $k^{th}$ digit is the sum over $\left(10n\right)^p\times$ all the digits, $p$ positions to the right of the $k^{th}$ digit, where you're only summing the resulting $k^{th}$ digit.
• This is precisely what's done in the question, although written in a different way and **shows that the behaviour arises because the terms are required to be sums of powers of $10n$ of previous terms because this is a fraction with a denominator of $10n-1$**.
#2: Post edited by Mithrandir24601‭ · 2020-10-19T22:35:55Z (over 3 years ago)
• First of all, there *is indeed* a pattern.
• To figure out why, there's an easier example than what you've found: $$0.\bar{1} = \frac{1}{9}.$$
• How does that work? $1$ is the only power of $1$: $1^n = 1$.
• Now, how do we *prove* this? if $x = 0.\bar{1}$, then $10x = 1.\bar{1}$ and so, $9x=1$.
• Hidden in that proof lies the answer for the other cases - you have some repeating number and in order to show what fraction that repeating number is equal to, here $1/\left(10n-1\right)$, you multiply it by $10n$ and subtract the number (again, I'll just call it $x$).
• To take your example of $1/19$, we have that the fraction is $x = 0.\overline{052631578947368421}$, so we multiply by $20$ to get $20x = 1.\overline{052631578947368421}$, subtract $x$ and $19x = 1$. Crucially, the number left on the RHS after subtracting is exactly $1$, as everything after the decimal point *cancels*. It must do this, because the fraction is some integer divided by some other integer. That is, if $x=n/m$, then $mx=n$.
• As we're in a decimal system, multiplying by $10$ is shifting one digit to the left. So, in doing this multiplication by $10n$, you're shifting the digit to the left, then multiplying by $n$, which is exactly the procedure outlined in the question.
• Now, each particular digit (after this multiplication procedure) must cancel with the digit to the left so at this point, they must be equal and we have the exact behaviour outlined in your question.
• First of all, there *is indeed* a pattern.
• To figure out why, there's an easier example than what you've found: $$0.\bar{1} = \frac{1}{9}.$$
• How does that work? $1$ is the only power of $1$: $1^n = 1$.
• Now, how do we *prove* this? if $x = 0.\bar{1}$, then $10x = 1.\bar{1}$ and so, $9x=1$.
• Hidden in that proof lies the answer for the other cases - you have some repeating number and in order to show what fraction that repeating number is equal to, here $1/\left(10n-1\right)$, you multiply it by $10n$ and subtract the number (again, I'll just call it $x$).
• To take your example of $1/19$, we have that the fraction is $x = 0.\overline{052631578947368421}$, so we multiply by $20$ to get $20x = 1.\overline{052631578947368421}$, subtract $x$ and $19x = 1$. Crucially, the number left on the RHS after subtracting is exactly $1$, as everything after the decimal point *cancels*. It must do this, because the fraction is some integer divided by some other integer. That is, if $x=n/m$, then $mx=n$.
• As we're in a decimal system, multiplying by $10$ is shifting one digit to the left. So, in doing this multiplication by $10n$, you're shifting the digit to the left, then multiplying by $n$, which is exactly the procedure outlined in the question.
• Now, each particular digit (after this multiplication procedure) must cancel with the digit to the left so at this point, they must be equal and we have the exact behaviour outlined in your question.
• ---
• To explain this generally and in more detail (taking $x<1$ wlog.) I'll use a fraction $$x = \frac{m}{10n-1}.$$
• When written in decimal format, this is $x = 0.x_1x_2\ldots x_k\ldots$, with $x_{k+r}=x_k$ for some $r$, where each $x_k$ is a single digit (i.e. an integer in the range $0-9$ as we're in a decimal basis).
• Now, we know that $\left(10n-1\right)x = m$, or $10nx - x = m$. However, m is an integer, so all the digits after the decimal point (the 'fractional part', in other words) are $0$.
• This means that the digits in the fractional part of $10nx - x$ *must also* be $0$.
• So, we look at the digits $x_r$ and $x_1\ldots x_{r-1}$.
• The fractional part of $10nx -$ the fractional part of $x$ equals $0$, or the fractional part of $10nx$ equals the fractional part of $x$. For this to be the case, *all the digits must be equal*.
• So, we take the digit $x_r$. To calculate $x_{r-1}$, we use the properties of the fractional parts being equal and multiplication by 10 as shifting the digit to the left to give that the fractional part of $10n\left(0.x_1\ldots x_r\right) - 0.x_1\ldots x_r = 0.0\ldots x_r$ (where the $0$s after the point are repeated $r-1$ times).
• This is *exactly* what's written in the question, just in a different way: $nx_r \mod 10 = x_{r-1}$. Or, the digit to the left of $x_{r-1}$ is $nx_r$, with change. Accounting for this change gives that $x_{r-j} = n^jx_r$, which is where the powers of $n$ come from, the change being what needs to be added to digits further to the left.
#1: Initial revision by Mithrandir24601‭ · 2020-10-19T20:32:21Z (over 3 years ago)
First of all, there *is indeed* a pattern.

To figure out why, there's an easier example than what you've found: $$0.\bar{1} = \frac{1}{9}.$$

How does that work? $1$ is the only power of $1$: $1^n = 1$.

Now, how do we *prove* this? if $x = 0.\bar{1}$, then $10x = 1.\bar{1}$ and so, $9x=1$.

Hidden in that proof lies the answer for the other cases - you have some repeating number and in order to show what fraction that repeating number is equal to, here $1/\left(10n-1\right)$, you multiply it by $10n$ and subtract the number (again, I'll just call it $x$).

To take your example of $1/19$, we have that the fraction is $x = 0.\overline{052631578947368421}$, so we multiply by $20$ to get $20x = 1.\overline{052631578947368421}$, subtract $x$ and $19x = 1$. Crucially, the number left on the RHS after subtracting is exactly $1$, as everything after the decimal point *cancels*. It must do this, because the fraction is some integer divided by some other integer. That is, if $x=n/m$, then $mx=n$.

As we're in a decimal system, multiplying by $10$ is shifting one digit to the left. So, in doing this multiplication by $10n$, you're shifting the digit to the left, then multiplying by $n$, which is exactly the procedure outlined in the question.

Now, each particular digit (after this multiplication procedure) must cancel with the digit to the left so at this point, they must be equal and we have the exact behaviour outlined in your question.